Genomics is a discipline in genetics that applies recombinant DNA, DNA sequencing methods, and bioinformatics to sequence, assemble, and analyze the function and structure of genomes (the complete set of DNA within a single cell of an organism). It is the study of complex sets of genes, their expression and the most vital role they play in biology. The most important application of bioinformatics in genomics is the Human Genome Project through which more than 30,000 genes have been identified and secured through the sequencing of chemical base pairs which make up the DNA. It has thus enabled us to obtain necessary knowledge as to how these genes inter-relate and what functions they perform. Cures for many diseases are being discovered through this inter-relation where bioinformatics, no doubt, plays a pivotal role.
Application of Genomics:-
Genomic medicine:- Next-generation genomic technologies allow clinicians and biomedical researchers to drastically increase the amount of genomic data collected on large study populations. When combined with new informatics approaches that integrate many kinds of data with genomic data in disease research, allowing researchers to better understand the genetic bases of drug response and disease.
Synthetic Biology and bioengineering:- The growth of genomic knowledge has enabled increasingly sophisticated applications of synthetic biology. In 2010 researchers at the J. Craig Venter Institute announced the creation of a partially synthetic species of bacterium, Mycoplasma laboratorium, derived from the genome of Mycoplasma genitalium.